Monday, January 20, 2020

Multiple Access Relay Network :: Technology, Network

We consider a multiple access relay network where each source transmit channel coded packets, relay decode the transmitted packet, generate network coded parity symbol, and retransmit it. We assume the relay has multiple antennas, so relay to destination link is MIMO channel. We consider two MIMO transmission mode at the relay, spatial multiplexing (SM) and beamforming as transmit diversity (TD), and assume that the relay use different network coding scheme depending on the MIMO transmission mode. In other words, we consider a network with three types of linear combination; channel coding at the source, network coding at the relay, and mixing over the air with MIMO channel. The main objective of the paper is to propose a transmission mode selection scheme at the relay which optimize these three linear combinations concurrently. There are numerous work that optimize either the network coding, MIMO transmission mode, or data rate over multiple access relay channel. Network coding techniques for single antenna relay network has been addressed in [1] - [4]. Authors in [1] investigated the cooperative diversity gain offered by the network coding. Authors in [2] proposed a network coding scheme based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that accounts for the lossy nature of wireless networks and showed that a significant coding/diversity gain can be achieved. Author in [3] investigated the tradeoff between reliability and rate as a function of node density and SNR, and showed how the energy and node density can be traded in achieving a given reliability-rate pair in single antenna case. Authors in [4] analyzed an network coded cooperation which adaptively match networks-on-graphs to the well-known class of codeson- graphs such as LDPC codes. This approach enables realtime adaptation of network codes to variant link states and changing network topologies. Network coding for multiple antennas have been studied for special network geometry in [5], [6]. Authors in [5] proposed a cross-layer design employing multiple antenna techniques and network coding called MIMO two-way relay for one dimensional mesh network and authors in [6] investigated the performance of MIMO network coding in bi-directional relay network. Adaptive relay protocol has been proposed for a network with single antenna relays in [7] - [9] and for a network with multiple antennas using amplify and forward protocol in [10], [11]. Authors in [11] proposed an adaptive antenna selection scheme at both the relay and the source for half-duplex MIMO amplify and forward relay protocol. Rate optimization for relay network has been addressed in [12], [13]. Authors in [12] proposed throughput optimal control policy for a parallel relay network with decode and forward protocol. Authors in [13] analyzed the performance of variable-rate two phase collaborative diversity protocols and optimized the transmission rate based on the node location.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Inventory Management Essay

Companies must predict which products customers will purchase along with determining what quantity of goods will be purchased. The company will in turn produce enough products to meet the forecast demand and sell, or push, the goods to the consumer. Advantages : The company is fairly assured it will have enough product on hand to complete customer orders. This prevents the inability to meet customer demand for the product. Disadvantages : If too much product is left in inventory, it increases the company’s costs for storing these goods. An example of a push system is Materials Requirements Planning, or MRP. MRP combines the calculations for financial, operations and logistics planning. It is a computer-based information system which controls scheduling and ordering. Its purpose is to make sure raw goods and materials needed for production are available when they are needed. Pull System The pull inventory control system begins with a customer’s order. With this strategy, companies only make enough products to fulfil customer’s orders. Advantages : There will be no excess of inventory that needs to be stored, thus reducing inventory levels and the cost of carrying and storing goods. Disadvantages : It is highly possible to run into ordering dilemmas, such as a supplier not being able to get a shipment out on time. This leaves the company unable to fulfil the order and contributes to customer dissatisfaction. An example of a pull inventory control system is the just-in-time, or JIT system. The goal is to keep inventory levels to a minimum by only having enough inventory, not more or less, to meet customer demand. The JIT system eliminates waste by reducing the amount of storage space needed for inventory and the costs of storing goods. Push-Pull System Some companies have come up with a strategy they call the push-pull inventory control system, which combines the best of both the push and pull strategies. Push-pull is also known as lean inventory strategy. It demands a more accurate forecast of sales and adjusts inventory levels based upon actual sale of goods. The goal is stabilization of the supply chain and the reduction of product shortages which can cause customers to go elsewhere to make their purchases. With the push-pull inventory control system, planners use sophisticated systems to develop guidelines for addressing short – and long-term production needs . List atleast eight performance measures for warehouse management A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. A warehouse management system, or WMS, is a key part of the supply chain and primarily aims to control the movement and storage of materials within a warehouse and process the associated transactions. The following activities are common in an y warehouse: a)Receiving b) Put-away c) Order picking d) Storage e) Shipping The eight performance measures for warehouse management are : 1. Service Level : Shipment Service Level (% of Lines shipped on time) Service Level (% of inbound lines put away within time limit) 2. Space: % of space occupied vs. % accessibility Warehouse capacity use rate % = No. of palets stored in warehouse / warehouse capacity in palets no. 3. Inventory: Inventory turnover ratio Inventory Accuracy 4. Productivity: Productivity (Measured in terms of lines picked per hour worked) Number of SKUs picked per hour 5. Quality: Quality in terms of errors per thousand lines shipped. Errors in dispatches Ware housing discrepancies = Products lost value (at cost) / total products shipped value (at cost) 6. Cost: Cost of warehouse operations Storage cost per item Cost of picking per order Cost of shipping per order 7. Cycle Time: Time taken to process a receipt. Time taken for each put-away. Inventory days on hand. Order Pick cycle time per order. Shipping time 8. Utilization: Receiving Dock door utilization % Utilization % of labour and equipment % Location and cube occupied Picking labour and equipment utilization % Utilization of shipping docks in % . What features would make an ideal supplier? Timely delivery: A good supplier is someone who keeps up to timely delivery of goods and supplies. Delayed supplies leads to business losses to the immediate customer and in turn delayed delivery to the end customer. This also opens up avenues for other secondary systems like buffer inventories to keep the chain going in addition to increasing overall costs. Competitive price: Business owners and suppliers add the cost of purchasing materials for a product into its retail price making it costlier. A reduction in this cost will lead to a reduction in the cost of the product as well. Quality: Quality is a very important aspect in determining a good supplier. Providing ultimate customer value is an important objective of business. Minimal paper work: From the placing of an order to the actual buying of an order involves a ton of paper work. A good supplier will find ways of reducing the amount of paper work involved. Quick response/ turn around time: The world of business is highly unstable, and often the gap between demand and supply can be hard to predict. A good supplier will always be prepared to meet such a contingency. Again a frequent and smaller quantity of supplies is the key to eliminating this gap. Inspection of goods: Inspection of goods is a time consuming activity for both the supplier and the buyer. However quality assurance of the goods can again reduce the time spent on inspecting the goods. Taking care of wear and tear and transport damage: Transportation and delivery often involves a lot of wear and tear and a good supplier is someone who recognizes these limitations and takes proactive steps to help reduce or avoid the damage involved. Constant frequency of delivery: If a supplier can keep to supplying goods at constant and smaller frequencies, then the cost advantage is supplemented. Meaning, if a product or part is found to be defective, then the time spent in replacing it is minimal as opposed to having to replace a whole carton or shipment of that item since the delivery is frequent and the supply chain is actively functioning. This is not only cost effective but is also a time and space saver.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Media Devices Used in Bend It like Beckham and Billy...

Media Devices Used in Bend It like Beckham and Billy Elliot Narratives are constructed in many different ways; narrative editing, narrative music, cinematography and mis en scene. This assignment will take you through media devises and method used by the directors of Bend it like Beckham and Billy Elliot use to construct their narratives. The plots of both films are based on stereotypes and how the main characters are challenging them in each film. This leads to many similarities and differences. Bend it like Beckham is set in west London areas; Southall, Hounslow, Twickenham and Ealing, also a section is in Germany. This is about A Indian girl that is growing up in a strict Indian family†¦show more content†¦Her coach, Joe and Jess get close in a club in Germany, at the moment Jules walks outside and sees them. Jules had a massive crush on Joe and as Jess and Jules were best friends Jess couldnt tell her, her feelings for Joe. At home, Jesss dad sees a picture of Jesss football team in the news paper and when Jess gets back they are waiting for her. Jess is forbidden to leave the house for weeks until Joe, the football team couch comes round and tells Jesss mum and dad that they need her in the team, Jess admires him for coming round and facing her parents. Later on it is Pinkys wedding meanwhile there is a football match on that Jess wants to desperately play in, her dad lets her go for the second half and Tony drives her there. Jesss dad comes and watches the m atch, admiring his daughters talent. Jess and Jules go to the USA to play football, Joe promises Jess to wait for her. Billy Elliot is about a young boy who grew up in the 1980s around the time of the strikes, Billy and his family are in a working class struggle, tight on money, set in County Durham near Newcastle. Billy is learning how to box, because itShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesSpecialist: Cathleen Petersen Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Art Director: Kenny Beck Text and Cover Designer: Wanda Espana OB Poll Graphics: Electra Graphics Cover Art: honey comb and a bee working / Shutterstock / LilKar Sr. Media Project Manager, Editorial: Denise Vaughn Media Project Manager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Full-Service Project Management: Christian Holdener, S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Binder: Courier/Kendallville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville

Friday, December 27, 2019

Mexican Independence - 1279 Words

Mexican Independence In New Spain, the Bourbon monarchies in 1808-1810 encouraged some creoles leaders to strike for total independence under the cover of Ferdinand. On July 1808, Napoleon’s capture of Charles the VI and Ferdinand the VII, and capture of Spain reached Mexico causing intense debate between Mexican elites. Creoles and Peninsulars prepared to take power and ensure their group would have power over the other; New Spain, like other Spanish colonies, went through the crisis of the Bourbon monarchy from 1808- 1810. Yet, in Mexico what pushed for independence from Spain would be the elite’s race for power. The creoles were the first to take action. The Mexico City cabildo called on the viceroy to summon an assembly. It was†¦show more content†¦It was followed by a long period of war at the Siege of Cuautla. Morelos military efforts were hampered by differences with fractious civilian allies and by his decision to establish a representative government at a time. In 1815, Morelos was captured by Spanish colonial authorities, tried and executed for treason in San Cristà ³bal Ecatepec on 22 December. After ten years of civil war and the death of two of its founders, by early 1820 the independence movement was stalemated and close to collapse. The rebels faced stiff Spanish military resistance and the apathy of many of the most influential criollos. The violent excesses and populist zeal of Hidalgo s and Morelos s irregular armies had reinforced many criollos fears of race and class warfare, ensuring their grudging acquiescence to conservative Spanish rule until a less bloody path to independence could be found. It was at this juncture that the machinations of a conservative military caudillo coinciding with a successful liberal rebellion in Spain, made possible a radical realignment of the proindependence forces. Vicente Guerror, planned to combine independence, monarchy, the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church, and the civil equality of the creoles and peninsulares. While stationed in the town of Iguala, IturbideShow MoreRelatedMexican Independence During The Mexican Revolution Essay1129 Words   |  5 PagesMexican Independence After the people of Mexico freed themselves from Spanish control, they faced difficulties trying to officially establish themselves as a country. Despite their independence, Mexico had to also live with the aftermath of Spanish colonialism. Part of the aftermath included socio-political issues amongst the Mexican people. In an effort to establish themselves as a nation, they first had to free themselves from a Spanish ideology, for Mexico truly was not free after their independenceRead MoreMexican War of Independence3064 Words   |  13 Pages* * * * * * * * * * * The Mexican Wars for Independence: Failed Ambitions * Pablo A. L. Briger * * * * * US and Modern World I * Mr. Segiel * February 15, 2013 * * * September 16 is a day of celebration all through Mexico. Even the president emerges from the royal palace, decorated with a sash to represent Mexico, rings a bell three times just as Miguel Hidalgo did on that same day in 1810 to commemorateRead MoreMexican Independence from Spain2073 Words   |  9 PagesMexican Independence from Spain In the late 18th century, the Spanish monarchy decided to improve the defenses of its empire because of its many military losses in Europe. Because of this, the Spanish Crown was forced to increase revenues. Between 1765 and 1771, Spain sent Josà © de Gà ¡lvez on an official tour of inspection of New Spain. He restructured the current taxes and their collection methods.. In 1778, Spain, attempting to increase its own revenues, lifted restrictions on colonial tradeRead MoreExploring the Mexican Independence from Spain Essay902 Words   |  4 Pagesextent was Mexico’s independence from Spain a â€Å"full-scale assault on dependency†? This essay will investigate how the Mexican independence from Spain was only slightly a â€Å"full-scale assault on dependency†, due to several political and social conflicts. Firstly, Mexico remained a monarchy (but not under the control of Spain) after the insurgency. Secondly, there was still an official state religion in Mexico. Another reason is because social conflicts reduced the desire for independence .On the other handRead MoreMexican Independence ( Rough draft ) Have you ever thought of something youre so curious700 Words   |  3 Pages Mexican Independence ( Rough draft ) Have you ever thought of something youre so curious about? Something that your curiosity runs completely insane because you need the full information or a full story about what really happened or how did it happen ? Well I did, When a research paper was assigned about Spanish Culture I was only Interested into one topic and thats the History or background oh how the Mexican People receive their Independence. Like how America had it’s own story of itsRead MoreEssay about Cultural Interview1193 Words   |  5 PagesInterview with Maria Mexican culture is colorful and rich, enriched with pride and heritage. Family values and strong moral constitution have sustained the culture for hundreds of years. I have had the pleasure to interact and consort with the Mexican culture most of my life in the business that Im in. Dedication and hard work are the stables that bound the stigma of the Mexican culture. Being that I truly honor the culture I have chosen a friend of mine that I work with to perform my interviewRead MoreEssay on Padres and Indians1232 Words   |  5 PagesOne of the things which largely go unrecognized is how vital the missions were to the military in California in the 19th century. Since the military in California received little to no support during the Mexican revolution against Spain, and suffered more after Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821. In particular, Mission San Jose was expected to furnish food to the military presidios as a way of preventing famines. In fact this had been estab lished in the 1770’s with the Reglamento, ItRead MoreIndependence Movement of Brazil and Mexico.1943 Words   |  8 Pagesorganizational structures by an independence movement, and if most is defined as greatest, successful as a desired outcome and original rationale and/or purpose is defined as an fundamental intentional reason, then between the countries of Brazil and Mexico, Brazil had the most successful revolutionary movement in terms of its original rationale and/or purpose because Brazil, unlike the Mexican independence movement, had a greater universal agreement about independence between every social classRead MoreSummary : The 1310 Words   |  6 PagesTravel Paper 1 Hum 107-251W Ayala San Miguel de Allende is a historical city located in the state of Guanajuato, central Mexico. The city was founded and named in 1542 by a Franciscan monk named San Miguel El Grande, but after Mexico gained independence from Spain the city was renamed in 1826 to honor Ignacio Allende - a prominent hero in the revolution – and in 2008 the city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, â€Å"San Miguel de Allende†). I plan to visit San MiguelRead MoreThe Intellectual Life of Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla4212 Words   |  17 PagesThe Intellectual Life of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, also referred to as the father of Mexican independence, began his life on May 8, 1753. He was born on the ranch of San Vincente, the estate of San Diego Corraljo, in the Jurisdiction of Pà ©njamo, Guanajuato.[1] His parents were Don Cristà ³bal Hidalgo y Costilla and Doà ±a Ana Marà ­a Gallaga. Miguel Hidalgo was a Creole, meaning that he was born of pure Spanish blood in a province of Spain.[2] Don Cristà ³bal and Doà ±a Ana

Thursday, December 19, 2019

To Believe Or To Believe No Question About It An...

Shakespeare’s Hamlet is widely regarded as one of the greatest tragedies in English literature. Written near the turn of the 17th century, there were new branches of Christianity appearing and the traditional Roman Catholic hold on power was waning, throwing the whole of Europe was in religious chaos. Nonetheless, the existence of a supreme being known as God was recognized in any branches, and strict adherence to religion was necessary for all the people of that age. It is important to examine the historical setting to fully understand some of the play’s subtler connotations. The protagonist of the play, Hamlet, is one of the most famous tragic heroes in existence, but the character’s fatal flaw is that he does not believe in God†¦show more content†¦It is ‘Adieu, adieu, remember me’./ I have sworn’t†. Despite that the ghost is quite possibly a demon according to Christian teachings, Hamlet makes a promise to a being that he sh ould not even speak to and this demonstrates his lack of adherence to Christianity, and a possible association with the devil. In the closing lines of Act I, Hamlet states that â€Å"The time is out of joint. O cursed spite,/ That ever I was born to set it right./ Nay, come, let’s go together†(I.v.196-199). He clearly believes that it is his duty to restore balance to the world as opposed to God’s. By the end of the first act, it is clear that Hamlet thinks that he can be a factor in God’s will, which far oversteps any Christian belief at the time. Hamlet admits in his fourth soliloquy that he recognizes the possible ill intentions of the spirit he has already made an oath to by admitting that â€Å"The spirit that I have seen/May be a devil, and the devil hath power/ t’assume a pleasing shape, yea, and perhaps,/ Out of my weakness and my melancholy,/ As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me.†(II.ii.585-590). In some ways, this places Hamlet as more devout because he confesses his doubts of the ghost, but at the same time, the fact that he is still willing to go ahead with his plans despite the devil’s possible influence would be very worrying to the Christian audience of the Elizabethan era. At theShow MoreRelatedTheme Analysis : The Tragedy Of Hamlet 1578 Words   |  7 PagesJackson F. Jones Mrs. Larr English IV 1st Period 16 December 2014 Theme Analysis of Hamlet The tragedy of Hamlet is a work of literature that contains a multitude of themes. Some of these themes are apparently obvious as you read through the tragedy. Themes such as revenge and madness present themselves openly through the progression of the story. However, there are other themes that lurk below the surface. You just have to dive a little deeper into the story to find them. On the surface, the themeRead MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words   |  116 Pagesï » ¿TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS The purpose of Text Interpretation and Analysis is a literary and linguistic commentary in which the reader explains what the text reveals under close examination. Any literary work is unique. It is created by the author in accordance with his vision and is permeated with his idea of the world. The reader’s interpretation is also highly individual and depends to a great extent on his knowledge and personal experience. That’s why one cannot lay down a fixed â€Å"model†

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Impact of Credit Crisis Essay Sample free essay sample

A Credit Crisis is chiefly caused by a continued period of mindless and reckless loaning which consequences in losingss for both loaning establishments and investors when the full extent of bad debt becomes known. When it becomes known. loaners will no longer impart to borrowers because of high hazard. and hence cut down the handiness of loans. Borrowers so can no longer borrow money for operating disbursals and to refund debts. What had happened to do the Credit Crisis in 2008 was merely that the mortgage loaners were money hungry and careless and began passing out mortgages to anybody. regardless of their income and recognition history. These were called the sub-prime mortgages. They gave mortgages to anybody because they expected houses to continuously rise in value. and if the people using for mortgages defaulted. it wouldn’t affair because the loaner will merely merely take the place that the place owner’s had purchased. We will write a custom essay sample on Impact of Credit Crisis Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Home builders kept constructing more and more places. and finally. the supply of places exceeded the demand. Housing monetary values so began to plump and shortly after. the monetary values of the places were manner below the value of the mortgage that the place proprietors had owned. Home proprietors so didn’t think it was deserving paying off the mortgage when it was worth more than their places. and they merely left and defaulted. Not much longer. there were 100s of vacant houses in the market. and Bankss and investors who had invested in these mortgages could no longer generate income to cover their operating disbursals or to refund their debts or to even gain anymore ( â€Å"Crisis Explained† ) . This was the Credit Crisis. Within this Credit Crisis. we will travel more in-depth to how commercial Bankss and securities houses were affected and the differences between them. The U. S. banking industries were badly suffered by this Credit Crisis. The figure of bank failures skyrocketed from the impact of the crisis and most had to be aided by the authorities in order for them to go on operation. Banks stock values decreased significantly ( Kwan ) . The Federal Reserve had reported a large contraction in short-run debts. Based on the Federal Reserve flow of financess study ( â€Å"Flow of Funds† ) . we could see that the â€Å"open market paper. † which can be defined as short-run commercial loans. â€Å"was slashed at the one-year rate of $ 682 billion† ( â€Å"Commercial Banks† ) . We can besides see that it decreased once more at the rate of $ 337 billion per twelvemonth in the 4th one-fourth. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ( OCC ) had besides reported harm and devastation in the derived functions market. Derived functions are stakes and debts placed by Bankss and others. In recent decennaries. derived functions have grown far beyond any grounds from the surface. The OCC reveals that in the 4th one-fourth of 2007 in its latest study. the national value of derived functions held by U. S. commercial Bankss plunged dramatically — by $ 8 trillion which had neer happened earlier. The U. S. Bankss had besides suffered a monolithic overall loss on their derived functions — $ 9. 97 billion which had besides neer happened before ( â€Å"Commercial Banks† ) . But in its latest study. the OCC’s chart below shows the magnitude and play of the diminution. We can see that the U. S. commercial Bankss had been doing consistent net incomes from their derived functions every twelvemonth until near the terminal of 2007. Their entire gross had neer dropped below positive and infrequent and curious suffered a important diminution and was even doing trade name new highs through the first 6 months of 2007. We experienced a landmark game-changing event: For the first clip. U. S. commercial Bankss suffered a immense loss in the derivative market. based on the bead of the ruddy line in the 4th one-fourth ( â€Å"Commercial Banks† ) . At the clip of the Credit Crisis. the Federal Reserve had lowered the involvement rate to 1 % to maintain the economic system strong. The investors who were puting in Treasury Bills ( T-bills ) no longer wants to make so any longer because a 1 % return wasn’t worth it to them. However. commercial Bankss were highly happy with this alteration in involvement rates. and began borrowing money from the Federal Reserve at merely 1 % and invested to a great extent into mortgages from the mortgage loaners. When puting Bankss purchase mortgages. they would have the involvement and rule payments from the place proprietor and this would bring forth them a nice sum of income. but they didn’t halt at that place. They would borrow immense sums of money and purchase tonss of mortgages and so bundle and categorise these mortgages into Collateralized Debt Obligations ( CDO ) which merely divide the mortgages into securities based on how hazardous they were. such as: safe ( low return ) . normal ( average return ) . and hazardous ( high return ) . They would so sell these CDOs to investors that no longer wanted to purchase T-bills. for a good sum of money. and in the terminal both groups are happy. But when estate values started to plump due to the extra supply of places ( freshly built and abandoned ) and diminished demand. the puting Bankss began having less of involvement and rule payments from the mortgages. and alternatively were having houses because the place proprietors would default on their mortgage. Investors notice this occurrence and no longer wished to put into these CDOs because they knew of the defaults and this type of investing became highly hazardous and no longer profitable and so they backed out. Commercial Bankss could no longer generate income to go on their operations or to pay off their debts and loans. and were approaching bankruptcy. The authorities could non allow these Bankss go bankrupt because it would destruct the whole economic system. and so they had to shoot one million millions of dollars in to the banking industry to forestall them from neglecting near the terminal of the crisis. Another consequence on the Commercial Banks can be seen by the London Interbank Offered Rate ( LIBOR ) . LIBOR represents the rate at which big planetary Bankss are willing to impart to each other on a short-run footing ( â€Å"Credit Crisis† ) . Normally. this rate presents small recognition hazard. but at the thick of the recognition crisis. LIBOR became an of import subject as a batch of Bankss in the US needed to borrow financess to go on day-to-day operations. LIBOR were unchanged for June – August 2008. but after Lehman Brothers went bankrupt. LIBOR experienced a crisp spike. In a planetary economic system based on recognition and trust. this was an highly distressing mark. and prompted concern among policymakers that the planetary fiscal system faced a systemic prostration ( â€Å"Credit Crisis† ) . When person expects their salary or income will increase following twelvemonth. they will increase disbursement now and put into securities houses. which is how securities houses make money. When the recognition crisis happened. involvement rates dropped doing a lower rate of return. and as a consequence investors looked elsewhere to put their money. and the securities house suffered. To further research how the recognition crisis affected securities houses. we are traveling to look at the instance of one of the largest securities houses in 2007. the Lehman Brothers. and to see the significant loss they had incurred from the Credit Crisis. In Crisis of 2008. the Lehman Brothers faced a crisis where they did non hold adequate financess to refund loans and their indirect backups were subprime mortgages that have been defaulted and its value diminished. This was all caused by Bankss doing NINJA loans at the government’s low involvement rate. This economic factor caused the full commercial documents money market to tumble over. Lehman tried to publish more commercial documents to cover its shortage. but investors all stayed away from it. Investors doubted the value of the collaterals Lehman’s had. and hence doing them extremely hazardous. Not merely did investors backed away from Lehman’s. they retreated from the full commercial paper market doing other corporations to hold deficient financess for operations. Furthermore. we can larn from the Lehman’s that the recognition crisis caused the money markets and securities houses to crash. From what we have explained in the Lehman Brothers illustration. investors lost assurance in the securities market doing them to withdraw from that type of investing wholly and so consuming the financess in the securities market. and so the other securities houses suffered the same destiny. After the recognition crisis several reactions can be observed from the securities market. In footings of the money market. T-bills started merchandising with negative returns. The planetary stock market recorded its worst hebdomad in October 2008 ; and it’s besides down more than 30 % for the twelvemonth. In the bonds market. corporate bond hazard premiums soared. Due to the fact that investors by and large lost assurance in corporations and they favored the ultra-safe U. S exchequer securities. We can see from the chart above that for this corporate bond. the hazard premiums skyrocketed. This is due to the tremendous hazard of buying their bonds. Consequentially. investors would non desire to take on such a high hazard. In general. most investors fled the securities market and rushed to the safety of T-bills. The recognition crisis most of import consequence on the securities market was through investor’s assurance. The current fiscal system is based on the premise that the market will go on to turn. This is a trust and assurance among investors. When this became broken. a dollar measure is merely a piece of paper. and a stock certification holds no value. The recognition crisis brought investors into a realisation of truth. They realized that a batch of Bankss and fiscal establishment were in problem. in profitableness. solvency and liquidness. The nucleus of â€Å"trust† was broken. This eroding of assurance Ate off at the very foundation of the modern fiscal system and is the ground why the recognition crisis posed such a grave menace ( â€Å"Credit Crisis† ) . This caused similar effects for other securities houses and in the terminal. they had besides been bailed out by the authorities. In the analysis above. we can see how both commercial Bankss and securities houses were affected by the recognition crisis. In the terminal they both suffer the same effects ( bankruptcy or authorities bailout ) . But the ground why they were affected otherwise was because they both were involved in the Crisis in different ways. Commercial Bankss borrowed a batch of money ( from Federal Reserves and other beginnings ) and they invested in mortgage backed securities on the premise of growing in lodging value. When householders defaulted and abandon their places. the Bankss were stuck with an extra supply of houses with no demands for them. Banks lost a significant sum of income but tonss of debt piled up to be repaid. Borrowing money becomes hard and expensive due to the deficiency of loan and high hazard premiums and finally Bankss failed to go on to run. doing bankruptcy. Consequentially. investors were disquieted and lost assurance in the securities market. because of unequal solvency. Investors instead invest their money in the ultra-safe T-bills. which were so popular. which caused a immense bead in rate of return. and at one point became negative. The money in securities market was drying up. intending no financess in the money market. bonds market and particularly mortgage markets. Without equal flow in the securities market. corporations no longer hold the liquidness to run doing a stock value bead. loss of assets and unemployment. Based on our research both the Commercial Banks and the Securities houses were immensely affected by the Credit Crisis. They had both incurred losingss. and lost the trust and assurance of investors but in different ways as discussed. Commercial Banks stopped having mortgage payments and investors no longer purchased their CDO’s. Securities Firms could no longer gain because investors did non hold assurance and trust in the solvency of their houses. and hence chose non to make concern with them. Plants Cited Kwan. Simon H. â€Å"Financial Crisis and Bank Lending. † Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. May 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. . â€Å"Credit Crisis: Market Effectss. † Investopedia – Educating the World about Finance. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. . â€Å"The Credit Crisis Explained in Simple English. † Digital Inspiration. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. . â€Å"Commercial Banks Heading for Huge Derivatives Losses- Credit Crisis Turning into Credit Armageddon. † The Market Oracle. Web. 07 Nov. 2012. . â€Å"Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States. † Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. .

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Forgotten Group Member free essay sample

The forming stage focuses around the initial entry of members to a team. The storming stage is one of high emotionality and tension among team members. The norming stage is where members start to work together as a coordinated team. The performing stage marks the emergence of a mature and well-functioning team and the adjourning stage is where teams disband when their work is finished. In reference to the case, The Forgotten Group Member, found on page W-113 of Schermerhorn (2012), the team remains in the storming stage one of high emotionality and tension among team members (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 57). Tension and emotionality are demonstrated in the case with Mikes absence and incomplete contribution, as well as his sarcastic reaction in the cafeteria based on the incorrect assumption the team was meeting without him. Conflict is also illustrated in the case by the anxiety and pressure experienced by the leader as the deadline approaches. We will write a custom essay sample on The Forgotten Group Member or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although she notes deep concern and empathy for Mikes situation, she admits to feeling distracted by Mikes lack of participation and engagement in the group and cannot focus on her accounting course work. By understanding the stages of group development, Christine would see the need to intervene as a leader to manage the tension and emotionality through maintenance leadership tasks to clarify, encourage, support, redirect and provide feedback (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 175). Part II: Problem Identification The primary problem in this case is one of poor leadershipChristine is missing some of the must have leadership skills for creating effective teams as described on page 170 of Schermerhorn (2012) which nclude keeping goals and expectations clear, communicating high standards and modeling positive team member behaviors. She has either not communicated or not reinforced standards of attendance and submission. According to Schermerhorn (2012, p. 161) When tasks are clear and well defined, it is easier for members to both know what they are trying to accomplish and to work together while doing it. Christine should understand that individual members on teams need to be encouraged, supported, directed and given feedbackprocesses of maintenance leadership (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 175). She does not yet understand how to incorporate meeting the individual group members needs into the process of effective team building. Maintenance leadership (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 175) refers to leadership activities which support the emotional life and interpersonal interactions among members through encouragement in participation, praising of contributions, and resolving conflicts between members. Although Christine felt empathy and concern for Mikes job constraints and girlfriend problems, she seems to have done nothing with this information which inadvertently reinforced Mikes absentee behavior. The secondary problem in this case is related to Mikes social loafing which threatens the effectiveness and cohesiveness of the group. A social loafer is an individual who works less hard in groups than he would individually (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 154 ). Mikes social loafing is intimately related to the poor maintenance leadership of Christine. According to Schermerhorn (2012, p. 157) the relationship between social loafing and perceived dispensability strengthened when individual contributions were more identifiable. In place of providing constructive feedback, modeling appropriate group behavior, encouraging or supporting Mikes role in the groupfunctions of a good leadershe is simply enabling his social loafing by passively accepting this behavior. Part III: Retrospective Evaluation I have identified the primary problem in the case as a lack of effective leadershipspecifically Christines failure to build an effect team with clear objectives, well-defined responsibilities and high standards. Short of sending Christine for a crash course in leadership, I would recommend an instructor intervention and leadership self-appraisal. Christine will perform a self-analysis by identifying the issues present in the group in order to consider her role in their development. Finally she will define strategies to integrate Mike into the groups culture, thereby minimizing his social loafing behavior. She can then meet with Mike individually to reinforce his role in the group and to discuss his social loafing behavior and together come up with strategies for change. She will then meet with the group as a whole to reinforce expectations, standards and each members value to the group as a whole. A second solution to the problem of leadership would be to change the leader. Based on the case scenario Steve is portrayed in the case as a business-like personality who was always wanting to ensure that group meetings were guided by an agenda and noting the tangible results achieved or not achieved at the end of every meeting (Schermerhorn 2012, W-113 and may possess a task-focussed leadership style that would benefit the group at this late stage in the assignment. The group should meet immediately to vote on a new leader as it may be difficult to achieve unanimity as I imagine Mike wont attend. Following the vote, the new leader would perform a team building exercise which would include Mike in a way that would help him reintegrate and then set clear expectations for task deadline achievement, participation and standards of submission. The pros and cons of performing a leadership appraisal versus changing the leader are presented here: ProsCons Leadership AppraisalKeeping the same leader avoids delay in group task progress Team may not accept a new leadership personality from the same individual Christine learns from the self-analysis and improves her leadership skills (trial by error) Mike may not be willing to share or change his behavior with the same leader in place Mike has the opportunity to share his needs and concerns directly with the leader Change of LeadershipA new leader creates an opportunity and expectation for change Christine does not learn as effectively from her mistakes without the analysis Steves business-like approach will help the group complete the task this close to deadline Mike may not be affected by the leadership change and continue to underperform as his needs are still not addressed formally Part IV: Reflection Christine is an ineffective leader. An effective team reflects good leadership and team cohesion. An effective team is one that achieves high levels of task performance, member satisfaction, and team viability (Schermerhorn 2012, p. 152). In this case, one of the members displays social loafing behavior reinforced by the leader through passive acceptance. He erroneously believes he has been left out of a secret group meeting by virtue of observing a cohesive group simply engaging in an impromptu lunch which subsequently reinforce his social loafing behavior.